Slightly later 2010
|View Template Page|
|The Four Standard Languages|
|Egonyota Pasaru||Egonyota Pasaru|
|Serakafph Xaxex||Serakafphu Pasaru|
|yukũa|Elaga ütæk|Qvalsa||yukũa|Elaga ütæk|Pasärú|
Egonyota Pasaru is the language spoken by Pseudoans. It is a general-purpose language with its own script. It descended from its older, more localized version Egonyota Vohalyosun.
Modes of SpeechEdit
| Major Restructuring in Progress in this Section!
There is such thing as "Modes of Speech", it's just that it's very vague now. What appears in this section is a very rough draft.
The above sentence, with etusaoso and galasaoso, is only part of the picture. These two are part of the four ways that one can speak Egonyota Pasaru, and many of them are simplifications that are inevitable with the increased gamut of peoples that are constantly being absorbed.
Below, then, is the chart of all possible ways of speaking Egonyota Pasaru:
|Galasaoso||No *fix-inflections||All cases||Complete|
|Sentasaoso||No *fix-inflections||Unicase (uppercase)||Limited; new words may be formed|
|Visesaoso||Only verbs and pronouns inflected||Bicase (upper and lower)||Verbose|
Phonology and orthographyEdit
It is fortunate that the Pseudoans have designed their alphabet to be quite hassle-free. The alphabetical order is exactly the same as the table below, read as columns left to right. That is to say that all vowels come after the consonants, with the exception of the loan-letters. Except for the nasals, all of those come behind the vowels.
In the table below, all the colored cells are those that are found in scriptures dating older than 41 236 PDN, the pivotal time that trans-Temporal Technology has been discovered so as to reveal the Invention Double Reacharound.
|Phoneme (IPA)||Transliteration||Phoneme (IPA)||Transliteration|
|/ʔ/||j||/e/ ~ /ɛ/||e|
There are, in total, 35 consonants, 15 vowels, 21 punctuation symbols (which are counted as letters) and two diacritics (which are not), giving the alphabet a moniker of "the Seventy-One" (sojtaollorvegšoryü, alternatively solteħataollorvegšoryü, "Seventy-One Letters"). Fph, the 36th letter, is an honorary letter; it is sorted under F in dictionaries, phonebooks and other things that list a lot of words from all across the field, and is written across three squares in Scrabble-esque games and crossword puzzles. This is because this letter is loaned from Serakafph Xaxex.
Note that there is no actual nominal order present in Egonyota Pasaru; the way that the letters are ordered are by no means arbitrary. The order of the letters depend on the name of the numbers used in the language.
There are two main accent marks in Egonyota Pasaru, the Payéď and the Sangū.
The Payéď is notated by the acute accent, and is only used on á, é, í, ó, ú, ǽ and ǘ, and even then only the first five are used with any regularity. The Payéď places stress on the syllable with the accented vowel:
- saru (/'sɑ.ru/) -- clean
- sarú (/sɑ.'ru/) -- to clean
The Payéď is notated in the native script as a small line above the vowel.
The Sangū adds length and stress to the syllable with the accented vowel. It only occurs with ā, ō and ū.
The Sangū is notated in the native script as a cross above the vowel.
A word can has both appearing at the same time. In which case the length goes to the Sangū'd syllable and the Payéď'd syllable has the stress.
- Rāťúȝo (/ɹɑ:.'θu.ɣo/) -- cigar
Double R bendEdit
When two Rs of the appear on both sides of a syllable boundary, a pronunciation shift happens.
- Arro (/ɑə.ɹo/ "Aëro") -- Window
- Etoŕŕaval (/ɛ.tol.ɾɑ.vɑl/ "Etolŕaval") -- Giraffe (4, 1) leaper
- Jinseřřádo (/ʔin.se.'θ͡rɑ.do/ "Jinseťřado") -- Double-Knight (4, 2) leaper
This is dependent on the first R, not the last.
The Pseudoan Alphabet (E.P. Palokrai Pasaru, the script is ferse Pasaru) is tricasal -- in other words, it has three cases, upper, middle and lower. In Latin (which has quite fewer cases) UPPERCASE and lowercase are as they always are, but middle-case characters are in small-capitals, though underlined characters are sometimes used when small-caps are unavailable or disliked. If even that can't be managed, then a simple uppercase letter is used.
Please note that when using small-capitals, the letters in the source are lowercase; whereas when underlined letters are used.
|Warning: Large Image|
|1,568 px||2,294 px|
|Link to data page · View Template Page|
The above image shows the Pseudoan Alphabet. Ë and È have no uppercase or middlecase form.
In Latin transliteration, the entire character sequence is capitalized. For instance, the word ller is capitalized "LLer". The exception is "Fph"; p and h are not capitalized even in that sequence.
Formation of lower- and middle-caseEdit
A depressingly low amount of worlds use more than one case to write words, and all of a sudden we had three. How did that come about?
By 700 PDN, we already have Egonyota Vohalyosun, which is written in one case. It's the lowercase characters. But as the power of Vohalyo rose and fell and rose again like an indesicive rollercoaster, an alternate case appears, developed by more peripheral powers, bigger, blockier and more easily recognised. That's the uppercase.Then, the uppsercase and lowercase characters were put together as the Vohalyo swells again. This is the bicase stage of Vohalyo, and that's similar but not identical to how our lowercase words came about. But while in our story this is where it ends, it continues in the Pseudoan tale.
At the time, words alternate cases at each lexeme, and start anew with uppercase with each sentence. For example, a phrase rendered in modern orthography as "Sukarařasa" (A sun that is green, see below) is at the time written as SUKARAřasa (THISisAsentenceWRITTENinENGLISHthatAPPROXIMATEStheSYSTEM.) This is easy to read, and does away with spaces, as at the time, the grammar was not well-formed enough to make word order any kind of problem.
However, it then became obvious that spaces were added in some time, to help separate ideas. NOW anEQUIVALENTsentence INenglish LOOKS like THIS, and the spaces conflict with the alternating captials. So what happened in 1603 PDN is that the capital letters are used for lexeme separation too, and Phrases Now Look Like They're Always InATitle.
It is not satisfactory however (the names of people, with the first letter capitalized, lose that distinction) and then a new script, the middle-case characters, were slowly formed, as compromises between the two existing scripts. This then replaced the uppercase characters as lexeme separators, and also encumbers the use of subtle emphasis. This happened sometime 6604 PDN.
No language can be without them!
Before seeing whatever is inflected, let's see things that aren't inflected. Here's a shocker: nouns don't have plurals! That's right, Egonyota Pasaru runs on a vocabulary that is exclusively "moose"-type words. If you want to indicate that there's more than one thing, and you don't have a verb to help you indicate that, then the best way is to add the word edul – some – as an adjective.
There are no irregular verbs. Verbs are inflected by time, number and person.
By person and numberEdit
In the following examples, "ese", the copula meaning "is" (used both generically and for the more specific "a is in the set of b") is used.
|you (when conversing with aliens)||esepar||esekar||esejar|
|you (when conversing with gods)||eselar||eseljar|
|you (when one respects the other party)||esegar||esegař|
|Bioforms (all manners of life)||esefra||esebra||eseža|
By time and numberEdit
|Pres. Cont.||ese ron||ese ronj|
|Off-timeline (either way)||flese||flesej|
All three articles occur (definite, indefinite and partitive) and are inflected by person and number.
Another form, a fourth one that is not seen in Indo-European languages is the specific article soj (specific article = satšujetstra, which is represented in English as "the" as in the Beatles, Alexander the Great, the Shining, Allah and so on. It is a quadrually-inflected word and should have been inflected by person but this is not usually done. It is done however so there are actually two different paradigms of the specific article:
|Three sexes||n/a||sojcr||sojca||sojke if the previous word ends with a consonant, soje otherwise|
|All four sexes||n/a|
This word comes from the confusion that arose from -- you guessed it -- music bands. Names like the Grasshoppers, the Queens (seen later below) and the Middling Fighters caused major confusion among the speakers, who don't like the whole "use a common word to refer to a constant thing" business. The word "soj" was then coined 18 866 PDN 16:22 by the Grasshoppers (sojyinyorga). Almost immediately, variations occurred. By 19 043 PDN it has been found that the difference between "soj", "soji" and the rest are so arbitrary that there was a movement for solidifying their meanings, giving the chart above. Thus in Egonyota Pasaru one can always find how many people are in a particular band or grouping, just by looking at the name. Of course, there are bands, such as the Mierbarat[16: 1], have 3 members yet holding the EP name "sojrmierbarat", despite never holding four members at any one time, but those are in the minority.
Note that the -i, -r and -a endings are because of the words for two, three and four (gi, sor and fa) rather than any stupid conspiracy theory telling people that "all proceeds go to the Individual Retirement Account agency" or something (although that joke has gone around to American Pseudoans, which exist due to the 2A Law).
Apart from the general VSO, PMT, there are the small things that are listed below.
Adjectives and NounsEdit
- Number-Noun-Adjective rule
- Adjectives come after nouns, except when they are numbers, where they are moved to the front.
- Cumulative Adjective rule
- Multiple adjectives are simply shoved at the end, without any seperator. Adjective order is arbitrary.
- Parallel Adjective rule
- Parallel adjectives (those that use "or" instead of "and" as joiners) are still middlecased-initial, but they have a space in between.
- Number-noun-adjective rule
- Green Sun -> Sukarařasa
- Bad sign -> nürtij
- Eight Continental Heroes -> Farfe dürsettekyü
- Exception: Pseudoan premier -> zabjo Pasaru
- Cumulative Adjective rule
- Dark Green Sun -> Sukarařasakak
- A4 school exercise book -> NGayaA4amuritayūf.
- Parallel Adjective rule
- Blue or white card -> Silzrūn bágoren.
Adverbs and verbsEdit
- Adverb-verb rule
- Adverbs come before verbs in all cases.
- Cumulative Adverb rule
- Multiple adverbs act just like multiple adjectives: middle-cased and put together.
- Parallel Adverb rule
- Parallel adverbs again act just like parallel adjectives.
- Run quickly -> tivífæt
Subordinate clauses have their conjunctions at the end, like this:
- After the Queens[16: 2] perform at the concert, they will have dinner. -> Daralla sojfenab kolmandúr gifa robanayo ȝet.
There is no authority on Egonyota Pasaru, due to its impossibility to do anything with rule-breakers. Instead, the Institute of Egonyota Pasaru (Veleynegonyota Pasaru) attempts to document and record every variation that has been extant, and publishes one billion versions of their tome The Guidelines and Variations of Egoyota Pasaru (solbansi k solžirindo ek Egonyota Pasaru) every half-life of uranium-238. This is not only in book form, but in any and all types of writing material you can get your hands on. Not to mention that as the tomes are auto-translated as they were written, thus reducing translation times.
A major bulk of the vocabulary can be seen in a separate category called Category:Vocabulary of the 4SL, together with the other three languages. There are a couple of oddities that aren't seen anywhere else. They are noted below.
The dichotomy and trichotomy termsEdit
The words kak and bib, as well as the words in, san and nor are words that are used to modify words directly. The dichotomy terms, by themselves mean generic positive trait and generic negative trait respectively, and the three trichotomy terms don't mean anything by themselves but are affixed to the concepts of positive, negative and zero.
Often, they are used to make words that have opposed or mutually exclusive meanings. For example:
- agu (weight)
- agukak = "positive" weight = heavy
- agubib = "negative" weight = light
- saru (clean)
- sarukak = "positive" cleanliness = clean
- sarubib = "negative" cleanliness = dirty
Notes on CultureEdit
- ↑ A band, 20 337 ~ 20 341 PDN, specializing in music where multiple unpitched percussion instruments spell out a melody instead of one instrument, which is common in central Feferisetan
- ↑ A mock-60s-British Pseudoan band setting up camp in Aberon, it was formed almost fully 200 years before the Romans invaded the islands. Time traveling and time loops make who came first ambiguous. Has nothing to do with Queen that contains Freddie Mercury.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 It's not common to see these terms being used anymore. While these terms are used when syllable space is important or in certain conditions (like a poem or a ceremony) the dichotomy terms bib and kak are more commonly seen: aguKak = heavy, aguBib = light.
- ↑ It actually breaks down to ed not and ul one.
- ↑ This is used with respect to time-traveller. For any such travellers, all they have to do is to specify their relative time (present if confusing or unknown) and put fl- before the verb.
- ↑ That, by the way, works out to be about one edition every 4 468 000 000 ÷ 1 000 000 000 = 4.5 years, but you know, what with the different year systems and all, it's good to have some kind of clock that anyone can agree with once relativity has been temporarily turned off.
- ↑ About 580 billion pieces of paper, roughly A4 size, are used in one book. Thank goodness for copy-and-paste!
- ↑ Yes, this is exactly the same as "saru". So sometimes, the terms do not hold vital semantic meaning.
|Four Standard Languages // View Template Page|
|Egonyota Pasaru (Pseudo) · Cipogrtesaj (Circular) · Yukũa|Elaga ütæk|Qvalsa (Quaxtion) · Serakafph Xaxex (Xaxex)|